Safety and Feasibility of the Impella® Device in High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
- Hemodynamic support with the Impella® device is associated with low mortality and low adverse events in patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HRPCI), according to a systematic review.
According to findings from a systematic review by Ichou et al, the Impella® device is safe and feasible for patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HRPCI).1
Systematic Review of Impella Device Use in HRPCI
Support with the Impella device is associated with increased cardiac output, improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and reduction in infarct size.2,3,4,5 Additionally, the Impella device unloads the LV, ultimately decreasing end-diastolic wall stress and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.6
The investigators of this systematic review identified 20 studies which evaluated the outcomes of Impella device support in HRPCI. These studies included a total of 1287 patients from 4 randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies. The average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ranged from 23% to 37%.
Success rate for intervention was high across studies, ranging from an average of 90% to 100%. Mean Impella device output was approximately 2.1 L/min during support, and the number of treated lesions ranged from 1.8 to 3.0.
Among the controlled studies included in this analysis, the investigators observed low rates of all-cause mortality following Impella device support.
In addition, O'Neill et al demonstrated a significantly lower rate of stroke associated with Impella device support vs IABP at 30 days (0% vs 1.8%, respectively; P = 0.04).10 Investigators also observed a trend toward lower rates of repeat revascularization (3.6% vs 7.8%; P = 0.06) and major adverse cardiac events (40.6% vs 49.3%; P = 0.07) among patients receiving the Impella device vs IABP.
The Take Home
This systematic review which includes 1287 patients demonstrates the favorable outcomes associated with the Impella device compared with IABP, particularly in regard to hemodynamic improvement and safety.
- Ait Ichou J, Larivée N, Eisenberg MJ, Suissa K, Filion KB. The effectiveness and safety of the Impella ventricular assist device for high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions: A systematic review. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv [published online September 20, 2017]. doi: 10.1002/ccd.27316.
- Valgimigli M, Steendijk P, Sianos G, Onderwater E, Serruys PW. Left ventricular unloading and concomitant total cardiac output increase by the use of percutaneous Impella Recover LP 2.5 assist device during high-risk coronary intervention. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2005;65(2):263-267.
- Meyns B, Dens J, Sergeant P, et al. Initial experiences with the Impella device in patients with cardiogenic shock - Impella support for cardiogenic shock. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;51(6):312-317.
- Gaudard P, Mourad M, Eliet J, et al. Management and outcome of patients supported with Impella 5.0 for refractory cardiogenic shock. Crit Care. 2015;19:363.
- Meyns B, Stolinski J, Leunens V, Verbeken E, Flameng W. Left ventricular support by catheter-mounted axial flow pump reduces infarct size. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(7):1087-1095.
- Henriques José PS, Remmelink M, Baan J, van der Schaaf, René J, Vis MM, Koch KT, Scholten EW, de Mol, Bas AJM, Tijssen Jan GP, Piek JJ, de Winter, Robbert J. Safety and feasibility of elective high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention procedures with left ventricular support of the Impella Recover LP 2.5. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:990-992.
- Dixon SR, Henriques JP, Mauri L, et al. A prospective feasibility trial investigating the use of the Impella 2.5 system in patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (The PROTECT I Trial): initial U.S. experience. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2(2):91-96.
- Seyfarth M, Sibbing D, Bauer I, et al. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a percutaneous left ventricular assist device versus intra-aortic balloon pumping for treatment of cardiogenic shock caused by myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1584–1588. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(19):1584-1588.
- Maini B, Naidu SS, Mulukutla S, et al. Real-world use of the Impella 2.5 circulatory support system in complex high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention: the USpella Registry. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;80(5):717-725.
- O'Neill WW, Kleiman NS, Moses J, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial of hemodynamic support with Impella 2.5 versus intra-aortic balloon pump in patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention: the PROTECT II study. Circulation. 2012;126(14):1717-1727.
Impella® Device — Indication & Safety Information
INDICATIONS FOR USE
The Impella 2.5® and Impella CP® Systems are temporary (≤ 6 hours) ventricular support devices indicated for use during high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in elective or urgent, hemodynamically stable patients with severe coronary artery disease, when a heart team, including a cardiac surgeon, has determined high-risk PCI is the appropriate therapeutic option. Use of the Impella 2.5 and Impella CP Systems in these patients may prevent hemodynamic instability, which can result from repeat episodes of reversible myocardial ischemia that occur during planned temporary coronary occlusions and may reduce peri- and post-procedural adverse events.
The Impella 2.5®, Impella CP®, Impella 5.0®, and Impella LD® Catheters, in conjunction with the Automated Impella Controller (collectively, “Impella® System Therapy”), are temporary ventricular support devices intended for short term use (≤ 4 days for the Impella 2.5 and Impella CP, and ≤ 6 days for the Impella 5.0, and Impella LD) and indicated for the treatment of ongoing cardiogenic shock that occurs immediately (< 48 hours) following acute myocardial infarction or open heart surgery or in the setting of cardiomyopathy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, or myocarditis as a result of isolated left ventricular failure that is not responsive to optimal medical management and conventional treatment measures (including volume loading and use of pressors and inotropes, with or without IABP). The intent of Impella System Therapy is to reduce ventricular work and to provide the circulatory support necessary to allow heart recovery and early assessment of residual myocardial function.
Important Risk Information for Impella devices
The Impella 2.5, Impella CP, Impella 5.0 and Impella LD are contraindicated for use with patients experiencing any of the following conditions: Mural thrombus in the left ventricle; Presence of a mechanical aortic valve or heart constrictive device; Aortic valve stenosis/calcification (equivalent to an orifice area of 0.6 cm2 or less); Moderate to severe aortic insufficiency (echocardiographic assessment graded as ≥ +2); Severe peripheral arterial disease precluding placement of the Impella System; Significant right heart failure*; Combined cardiorespiratory failure*; Presence of an Atrial or Ventricular Septal Defect (including post-infarct VSD)*; Left ventricular rupture*; Cardiac tamponade*
* This condition is a contraindication for the cardiogenic shock indication only.
POTENTIAL ADVERSE EVENTS
Acute renal dysfunction, Aortic valve injury, Bleeding, Cardiogenic shock, Cerebral vascular accident/Stroke, Death, Hemolysis, Limb ischemia, Myocardial infarction, Renal failure, Thrombocytopenia and Vascular injury
In addition to the risks above, there are other WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS associated with Impella devices. Visit http://www.abiomed.com/important-safety-information to learn more.
Right-Side Support – Indication & Safety Info.
INDICATIONS FOR USE
The Impella RP® System is indicated for providing temporary right ventricular support for up to 14 days in patients with a body surface area ≥1.5 m2, who develop acute right heart failure or decompensation following left ventricular assist device implantation, myocardial infarction, heart transplant, or open-heart surgery.
Important Risk Information for Impella RP
The Impella RP System is contraindicated for patients with the following conditions: Disorders of the pulmonary artery wall that would preclude placement or correct positioning of the Impella RP device. Mechanical valves, severe valvular stenosis or valvular regurgitation of the tricuspid or pulmonary valve. Mural thrombus of the right atrium or vena cava. Anatomic conditions precluding insertion of the pump. Presence of a vena cava filter or caval interruption device, unless there is clear access from the femoral vein to the right atrium that is large enough to accommodate a 22 Fr catheter.
POTENTIAL ADVERSE EVENTS
The potential adverse effects (eg, complications) associated with the use of the Impella RP System: Arrhythmia, Atrial fibrillation, Bleeding, Cardiac tamponade, Cardiogenic shock, Death, Device malfunction, Hemolysis, Hepatic failure, Insertion site infection, Perforation, Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (a severe form of deep venous thrombosis), Pulmonary valve insufficiency, Respiratory dysfunction, Sepsis, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic vascular (non-central nervous system) complication, Tricuspid valve injury, Vascular injury, Venous thrombosis, Ventricular fibrillation and/or tachycardia.
In addition to the risks above, there are other WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS associated with Impella RP®. Visit http://www.abiomed.com/impella/impella-rp to learn more.
General Indication and Safety Information
To learn more about the Impella platform of heart pumps, including important risk and safety information associated with the use of the devices, please visit: www.protectedpci.com/indications-use-safety-information/